Radiology.Academy.Sk

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Spleen
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Kidneys
Kidney
Pancreas
Pelvic congestion syndrome
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CT Abd Epiploic Appendagitis
Fractures Wrist
Wrist
Diffuse periosteal reaction
Signs in Uroradiology
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ACR Appropriateness Criteria Breast Cancer Screen
AVM types
CT Orbits
CT Abd NL
Chiari Malformations
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Elbow
XRAY Abdominal Series

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Kidneys

Fibrous layer applied to renal cortex is renal capsule. Fat-filled space just external to renal capsule is perirenal fat. Thin fascial layer just external to perirenal fat is renal (Gerotas) fascia. Fat and pancreas containing space anterior to renal fascia is anterior pararenal space. Renal parenchymal layer containing glomeruli is renal cortex. Renal parenchymal layer containing collecting tubules is medullar pyramid. Focal protrusion of pyramid into calyx is papilla. Tubular or funnel-shaped structure draining calyx is infundibulum. Sharp edge of calyx (at junction with papilla) is calyceal fornix. Central renal area containing collecting system, vessels, fat is medulla. n -------------------------------------------- Radiology: Renal cysts Renal cysts can be classified according to the Bosniak classification depending on their features. Type I cysts are simple cysts. Type II are the minimally complicated cysts. Type I and II can be ignored. Type II F are probably benign, but need to be followed. Type III and IV both are surgical lesions. Type IV is inevitably malignant and in the type III group about 80-90% turn out to be malignant as well. The following imaging features indicate that a cyst is NOT simple: - Calcification: punctate, linear, nodular, solitary, multiple - Hyperdense / high signal: - Septations: hairline, thick, irregular - Multiple locules - Enhancement: the best predictor of malignancy; <10HU nl, 10-15HU f/u; >15HU nephrectomy unless infection - Nodularity / wall thickening