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Pediatric Fractures

Bowing fracture: Plastic deformation of the bone with bending.

Buckle fracture/Torus fracture

Buckling of the cortex. Metaphysis of long bones - dorsal distal radius

Greenstick fracture

Incomplete cortical break on the convex side. Forearm.

Toddler's fracture

Nondisplaced oblique fracture through the tibial shaft.

Cuboid fracture

more common that previously suspected due to forced plantar flexion of the foot.

Salter-Harris Type I fracture

in children less than five years old. Fracture through the physis with separation of the epiphysis from the metaphysis. Gymnast's wrists".

Salter-Harris type II fracture

the most common type, accounting for 75% of physeal injuries. The fracture extends from the physis into the metaphysis. "Thurston-Holland" fragment.

Salter-Harris type III fracture

Intraarticular fracture of the epiphysis with extension through the physis. Tillaux fracture in adolescence.

Salter-Harris type IV fracture

extends from the articular suface, crosses the epiphysis, extends through the full thickness of the physis and exits through the metaphysis. Triplane fracture horizontal fracture through the physis, a coronal fracture through the metaphysis and a sagittal fracture through the epiphysis.

Salter-Harris type V fracture

Crushing of physis.

Supracondylar fracture

is the most common fracture of the pediatric elbow. Posterior fat pad elevation. Follow-up radiographs in 7-10 days if occult.

Lateral condyle fracture

is 2nd most common fx. It is usually a Salter-Harris type IV fracture, involving a small fragment of distal humeral metaphysis and unossified epiphysis. Posterior fat pad elevation.

The medial epicondyle

is an apophysis that may be avulsed due to pull of the flexor pronator tendon. Simple separation of the epicondyle to complete dislocation and/or intra-articular entrapment of the epicondyle. The entrapped medial epicondyle may be mistaken for the trochlear ossification center. CRITOE - trochlear ossification center should never be present without a medial epicondylar ossification center.

Tillaux fracture

Intraarticular fracture of the epiphysis with extension through the physis. Salter-Harris type III fracture in adolescence.