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Neuro Review
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Kidney
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Pelvic congestion syndrome
Liver
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CT Abd Epiploic Appendagitis
Fractures Wrist
Wrist
Diffuse periosteal reaction
Signs in Uroradiology
Male breast
MRI Breast Indications
CT Head Cerebellar Mass
Biopsies
Diagnostic mammography
Screening mammography
Mammo Pearls
ACR Appropriateness Criteria Breast Cancer Screen
AVM types
CT Orbits
CT Abd NL
Chiari Malformations
Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)
Elbow
XRAY Abdominal Series

Abdomen
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neuro
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Nuclear Medicine
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Bladder

Post void residuals (length x width x height) / 2 (nl < 25 ml). Bladder wall thickening due to bladder outlet obstruction (prostate, posterior urethral valves), neurogenic bladder, cystitis, edema, radiation, neoplasms. Distended bladder wall thickness < 3 mm, non-distended < 5 mm. Pediatric distended 1-3 mm, non-distended 2-4 mm.


Transitional Cell Carcinoma

90%, arise along the posterior wall in the region of trigone. Polypoid into the bladder lumen, or infiltrative with wall thickening. Smoking, analgesics.


Squamous Cell Carcinoma

5% (schistosomiasis, neurogenic bladder, chronic inflammations)


Adenocarcinoma

2%, in urachal remnants and in bladder extrophy; bladder ca M >> F


DDx: blood Clots, Stones, Fungus balls, Invasion from adjacent tumors (prostate, rectum, cervix, uterus), adjacent Inflammatory processes (diverticulitis, appendicitis, Crohn’s, PID), Ureteroceles, Urachal cyst, Fistulas, Wall Trabeculation, BPH, Endometriosis, malakoplakia, leukoplakia, TB, Schistosomiasis

Bladder diverticula

Due to outlet obstruction, fluid filled structure adjacent to the bladder


Urachal diverticulum or cyst

Incomplete closure of the urachus, if umbilical segment closes but vesicular don’t - diverticulum; if incomplete closure between vesicle and umbilicus - cyst


Ureterocele

Dilatation of the intramural portion of the distal ureter protruding into bladder


Urethral diverticulum in females

TV and trans-perineal US